This is a chronology of all of the relevant Kratom Medical Research that’s been culled from 150+ Medical Papers on Kratom. This is far from an exhaustive list as more research studies are being released weekly, and many more studies are not yet published. The Botanical Legal Defense is fighting sensationalist articles on Kratom as well as a rush to judgement by our representatives in the Federal government, and ask you to consider the research, read our Summaries below, and recognize that, if nothing else, Kratom does NOT belong in Schedule I.

Placing Kratom into Schedule I would immediately shut down the innumerable studies that have already shown the vast medical potential Kratom currently possesses, and its medical potential is very far-reaching as outlined in our “Facts” tab.

If you are a lawmaker or in any position of authority and have questions, please do not hesitate to contact any of us at the Botanical Legal Defense.

KRATOM MEDICAL RESEARCH (CHRONOLOGICAL):

DATE: 1986
RESEARCH: “3-dehydromitragynine: An alkaloid from Mitragyna speciosa. A newly discovered alkaloid in 1986.”
Ekkasit Kumarnsita, Niwat Keawpradubb and Watcharin Nuankaewc aDepartment of Physiology, Faculty of Science, Department of Pharmacognosy and Pharmaceutical Botany, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, PSU, Hat-Yai, Thailand.
ABSTRACT: An investigation of the fresh leaves of Mitragyna speciosa has resulted in the isolation of a new alkaloid in addition to the indole alkaloids previously reported. The new alkaloid is the 3-dehydro derivative of mitragynine and its structure was elucidated by spectral means and chemical transformations. (-)-Epicatechin was also isolated from the leaves.
ONLINE SOURCE: PhytochemistryVolume 25, Issue 12, 1986, Pages 2910-2912
LOCAL SOURCE:
PLAIN ENGLISH SUMMARY: The purpose of this medical study was to simply find and confirm what the alkaloids present in Kratom were. This study revealed the existence of multiple alkaloids, but specifically identified 3-dehydromitragynine.

 

DATE: January 1988
RESEARCH: “Ethnophrmacology of Kratom and the Mitragyna Alkaloids”
Karl L.R. Jansen and Colin J. Prast, Department of Anatomoy, University of Auckland Medical School, Auckland (New Zealand).
ABSTRACT: An investigation into the pharmacology of Kratom.
ONLINE SOURCE: Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 23 (1988), pages 115-119, Elsevier Scientific Publishers, Ireland
LOCAL SOURCE: DOWNLOAD A PDF OF THE RESEARCH PAPER
PLAIN ENGLISH SUMMARY: This study aimed to describe Kratom in detail, including it’s most common alkaloids. This study further concluded that “published experimental results were positive for use as an analgesic, anti-tusive, and hypothermic agent in animals. The study also pointed out that Kratom may be a natural substitute for methadone in treating opiate addiction.

 

DATE: 1998
RESEARCH: “Evaluation of Analgesia Induced by Mitragynine, Morphine, and Paracetamol on Mice”
S.Z. Idid, L.B. Saad, H. Yaacob and M.M. Shahimi.
ABSTRACT: An investigation to compare the antinocieptive activity of morphine and paracetamol to that of mitragynine, a major constituent of fresh leaves of M. speciosa. All substances were administered to mice orally.
ONLINE SOURCE: Phytochemistry, Volume 25, Issue 12, 1986, Pages 2910-2912
LOCAL SOURCE: DOWNLOAD A PDF OF THE RESEARCH PAPER
PLAIN ENGLISH SUMMARY: All three substances produced significant analgesia when tested. The researchers concluded that mitragynine may be a potential new analgesic that requires further study.

 

DATE: August 2004
RESEARCH: “Acute and long-term effects of alkaloid extract of Mitragyna speciosa on food and water intake and body weight in rats”
Peter J. Houghton and Ikram M. Saida
Chelsea Department of Pharmacy, Kings College London (KQC), U.K.
Chemistry Department, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia
ABSTRACT: Acute administration of Mitragyna speciosa (MS) extract (45 and 50 mg/kg) significantly resulted in dose-dependent decreases in food and water intakes (P < 0.05) in rats. Prolonged suppressing effects were observed following administration of the MS extract (40 mg/kg) for 60 consecutive days. Moreover, the long-term administration also significantly suppressed weight gaining.
ONLINE SOURCE: PubMed Online: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16781828.
LOCAL SOURCE:
DOWNLOAD PDF OF THE RESEARCH PAPER
PLAIN ENGLISH SUMMARY: The purpose of this medical study was to find the long-term effects of the isolated Mitragyna speciosa alkaloid in Kratom. The study found that water intake of rats was reduced, and there was a suppression in weight gain. That points to the possibility of Kratom being a powerful tool in fighting obesity the world over.

 

DATE: 2006
RESEARCH: “Pharmacological Studies on 7-Hydroxymitragynine, Isolated from the Thai Herbal Medicine Mitragyna speciosa: Discovery of an Orally Active Opioid Analgesic”
Kenjiro Matsumoto.
ABSTRACT: Substances derived from natural products have been utilized since the beginning of time for various medical purposes including the treatment of pain. Opium, for example, has been mentioned in the earliest historical records, some 7000 years ago. In fact, research in the area of pain management and drug addiction originally focused on natural products exclusively. Our research group has studied uniquely structured, nitrogen-containing compounds isolated from the traditional Thai herb Mitragyna speciosa. We have been investigating the pharmacological properties of this herb, individual components of its extracts, and structurally related compounds since the 1980s. .
ONLINE SOURCE: Online Resource: http://mitizane.ll.chiba-u.jp/metadb/up/assist1/Y2006-17.pdf
LOCAL SOURCE: DOWNLOAD A PDF OF THE RESEARCH PAPER
PLAIN ENGLISH SUMMARY: The purpose of this medical study was to simply study and publish the discovery of Kratom’s medical potential as an orally-active pain killer.

 

DATE: 2010
RESEARCH: “In Vitro and in Vivo Effects of Three Different Mitragyna speciosa Korth Leaf Extracts on Phase II Drug Metabolizing Enzymes—Glutathione Transferases (GSTs)”
Juzaili Azizi 1, Sabariah Ismail 1,*, Mohd Nizam Mordi 1, Surash Ramanathan 1, Mohd Ikram Mohd Said 2 and Sharif Mahsufi Mansor.
ABSTRACT: An investigation into the effects of three different Mitragyna speciosa extracts, namely methanolic, aqueous and total alkaloid extracts, on glutathione transferase-specific activity in male Sprague Dawley rat liver cytosol in vitro and in vivo.
ONLINE SOURCE: Molecules Online: http://www.mdpi.com/1420-3049/15/1/432
LOCAL SOURCE: DOWNLOAD A PDF OF THE RESEARCH PAPER
PLAIN ENGLISH SUMMARY: The purpose of this study was to find out if and how Kratom Leaf extracts interact with other herbs or drugs when administered in vivo (a living orgqnism such as a rat or human) and in vitro (outside of the organism and in something such as a test tube). In conclusion, according to the data, Kratom extracts show significant herb-drug interactions, in both in vivo and in vitro studies. Therefore, the researchers concluded that further research is necessary to investigate the clinical relevance of M. speciosa extracts and GST’s interactions in human body.

 

DATE: March 2010
RESEARCH: “The neuromuscular blockade produced by pure alkaloid, mitragynine and methanol extract of kratom leaves (Mitragyna speciosa Korth.)”
Somsmorn Chittrakarna, Niwat Keawpradubb, Kitja Sawangjaroena, Supaporn Kansenalaka, Benjamas Janchawee, Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Science, Prince of Songkla University
ABSTRACT: The effects of pure alkaloid, mitragynine and a methanolic extract of kratom leaves were investigated on neuromuscular junction and compound nerve action potential. Kratom methanolic extract present at 0.1–1 mg/mL and mitragynine (0.0156 mg/mL) decreased the muscle twitch on the isolated phrenic nerve–hemidiaphragm and hemidiaphragm preparation. Muscle relaxation caused by kratom extract (1 mg/mL) was greater than the effect of mitragynine. Pan-curonium and succinylcholine potentiated the effect of kratom extract. It also had a direct relaxation effect on the hemidiaphragm muscle. The muscle relaxation caused by kratom extract was not antagonized by neostigmine, tetraethylammonium and calcium chloride. High concentrations of kratom extract (10–40 mg/mL) and mitragynine (2 mg/mL) blocked the nerve conduction, amplitude and duration of compound nerve action potential.
ONLINE SOURCE: Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 129 (2010), pages 344-349, Elsevier Scientific Publishers, Ireland
LOCAL SOURCE: DOWNLOAD A PDF OF THE RESEARCH PAPER
PLAIN ENGLISH SUMMARY: The purpose of this research was to study mechanism of action of Kratom extract and its alkaloids. The researchers concluded that Kratom might not act as a competitive antagonist of acetyl-choline, yet the dominant effect was at the neuro-muscular junction and not at the skeletal muscle or somatic nerve. This study also concluded that other alkaloid components of Kratom, and not just mitragynine may also have an effect on the compound action potential. And that means even more medical potential for Kratom and it’s 27 alkaloids, most of which have not been studied at all yet.

 

DATE: April 2011
RESEARCH: “Kratom in Thailand”
By Pascal Tanguay
ABSTRACT: In early 2010, the Thai Office of the Narcotics Control Board (ONCB) developed a policy proposal to review different aspects of the criminal justice process in relation to drug cases. The possibility of decriminalising the indigenous psychoactive plant, kratom, was included in the ONCB’s proposal for consideration by the Ministry of Justice. This briefing paper provides an overview of issues related to kratom legislation and policy in Thailand as well as a set of conclusions and recommendations to contribute to a reassessment of the current ban on kratom in Thailand and the region.
ONLINE SOURCE: Series on Legislative Reform of Drug Policies Nr. 13
LOCAL SOURCE: DOWNLOAD A PDF OF THE RESEARCH PAPER
PLAIN ENGLISH SUMMARY: The researchers concluded that Kratom is an integral part of southern Thai culture. They felt that the cCriminalization of Kratom was unnecessary and counter-productive given decades of unproblematic use.

 

DATE: June 2012
RESEARCH: “Total Synthesis of (-)-Mitragynine and Analogues”
Master Thesis by Isabel Kerschgen
ABSTRACT: Besides the use as a drug, the plant has found application in medicine in the treatment of coughing, diarrhea, muscle pain and hypertension. Interestingly, mitragynine has a stronger analgesic effect than morphine, so that it has been suggested as a useful compound in the treatment of opiate addiction in replacement therapy. About the biological activity of paynantheine and speciogynine there are very little studies reported.
ONLINE SOURCE: PubMed, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2526544/.
LOCAL SOURCE: DOWNLOAD A PDF OF THE RESEARCH PAPER
PLAIN ENGLISH SUMMARY: The purpose of this medical study was to demonstrate the far-reaching possibilites for Kratom’s medicinal value and properties. This study concluded that there IS medical potential for Kratom, including its use as a powerful analgesic as well as an aid in treatment of opiate addiction. This study alone shows that Kratom does NOT belong on Schedule I.

 

DATE: 2014
RESEARCH: “Genes induced by high concentration of salicylic acid in Mitragyna speciosa”
Siti Sarah Jumali, Ikram M. Said, Ismanizan Ismail, Zamri Zainal, Institute of Systems Biology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Department of Biosciences and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan
Malaysia
ABSTRACT: Until now, only six sequences related to Kratom are available in GenBank. Therefore, our work significantly contributes to the understanding of the molecular genetics of M. speciosa. Treatment with plant growth regulator such as salicylic acid (SA) is able to increase plant defense mechanism which later induces the expression of genes that encode secondary metabolite production. To identify genes that respond to elicitation of high concentration of SA, suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) library was constructed using mRNA from SA-treated leaves and mRNA from non-SA-treated leaves.
ONLINE SOURCE: Australian Journal of Crop Science, ISSN: 1835-2707
LOCAL SOURCE: DOWNLOAD A PDF OF THE RESEARCH PAPER
PLAIN ENGLISH SUMMARY: In order to cope with heat stress, plants implement various mechanisms. This study observed those same characteristics in the Kratom plant, and the information gained during this study significantly adds to the understanding of the molecular genetics of Kratom.

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